[These excerpts are from the book "Skills and Tasks for Jobs - A SCANS report for America 2000" published by the U.S. Department of Labor. The book may be purchased from the U.S. Government Printing Office under ISBN 0-16-036177-X.]

Table 1-1. SCANS Competencies


Allocates Time
Allocates Money
Allocates Material and Facility
Resources Allocates Human Resources


Acquires and Evaluates Information
Organizes and Maintains Information
Interprets and Communicates Information
Uses Computers to Process Information


Participates as a Member of a Team
Teaches Others
Serves Clients/Customers
Exercises Leadership
Negotiates to Arrive at a Decision
Works with Cultural Diversity


Understands Systems
Monitors and Corrects Performance
Improves and Designs Systems


Selects Technology
Applies Technology to Task
Maintains and Troubleshoots Technology
Table 1-2. SCANS Foundation Skills

Basic Skills

Arithmetic & Mathematics


Thinking Skills

Creative Thinking
Decision Making
Problem Solving
Seeing Things in the Mind's Eye
Knowing How to Learn


Personal Qualities Responsibility


Table 2-1. Definitions of Competencies and Foundation Skills Competencies


Cl Allocates Time - Selects relevant, goal-related activities, ranks them in order of importance, allocates time to activities, and understands, prepares, and follows schedules. Competent performance in allocating time includes properly identifying tasks to be completed; ranking tasks in order of importance; developing and following an effective, workable schedule based on accurate estimates of such things as importance of tasks, time to complete tasks, time available for completion, and task deadlines; avoiding wasting time; and accurately evaluating and adjusting a schedule.
C2 Allocates Money - Uses or prepares budgets, including making cost and revenue forecasts, keeps detailed records to track budget performance, and makes appropriate adjustments. Competent performance in allocating money includes accurately preparing and using a budget according to a consistent and orderly accounting method; accurately calculating future budgetary needs based on projected costs and revenues; accurately tracking the extent to which actual costs and revenues differ from the estimated budget, and taking appropriate and effective actions.
C3 Allocates Material and Facility Resources - Acquires, stores, and distributes materials, supplies, parts, equipment, space, or final products in order to make the best use of them. Competent performance in allocating material and facility resources includes carefully planning the steps involved in the acquisition, storage, and distribution of resources; safely and efficiently acquiring, transporting or storing them; maintaining them in good condition; and distributing them to the end user.
C4 Allocates Human Resources - Assesses knowledge and skills and distributes work accordingly, evaluates performance and provides feedback. Competent performance in allocating human resources includes accurately assessing people's knowledge, skills, abilities, and potential; identifying present and future workload; making effective matches between individual talents and workload; and actively monitoring performance and providing feedback.


C5 Acquires and Evaluates Information - Identifies need for data, obtains them from existing sources or creates them, and evaluates their relevance and accuracy. Competently performing the tasks of acquiring data and evaluating information includes posing analytic questions to determine specific information needs; selecting possible information and evaluating its appropriateness; and determining when new information must be created.
C6 Organizes and Maintains Information - Organizes, processes, and maintains written or computerized records and other forms of information in a systematic fashion. Competently performing the tasks of organizing and maintaining information includes understanding and organizing information from computer, visual, oral and physical sources in readily accessible formats, such as computerized data bases, spreadsheets, microfiche, video disks, paper files, etc.; when necessary, transforming data into different formats in order to organize them by the application of various methods such as sorting, classifying, or more formal methods.
C7 Interprets and Communicates Information - Selects and analyzes information and communicates the results to others using oral, written, graphic, pictorial, or multi-media methods. Competently performing the tasks of communicating and interpreting information to others includes determining information to be communicated; identifying the best methods to present information (e.g., overheads, handouts); if necessary, converting to desired format and conveying information to others through a variety of means including oral presentation, written communication, etc.
C8 Uses Computers to Process Information - Employs computers to acquire, organize, analyze, and communicate information. Competently using computers to process information includes entering, modifying, retrieving, storing, and verifying data and other information; choosing format for display (e.g., line graphs, bar graphs, tables, pie charts, narrative); and ensuring the accurate conversion of information into the chosen format.


C9 Participates as a Member of a Team - Works cooperatively with others and contributes to group with ideas, suggestions, and effort. Demonstrating competence in participating as a member of a team includes doing own share of tasks necessary to complete a project; encouraging team members by listening and responding appropriately to their contributions; building on individual team members' strengths; resolving differences for the benefit of the team; taking personal responsibility for accomplishing goals; and responsibly challenging existing procedures, policies, or authorities.
C10 Teaches Others - Helps others learn. Demonstrating competence in teaching others includes helping others to apply related concepts and theories to tasks through coaching or other means; identifying training needs; conveying job information to allow others to see its applicability and relevance to tasks; and assessing performance and providing constructive feedback/reinforcement.
Cll Serves Clients/Customers - Works and communicates with clients and customers to satisfy their expectations. Demonstrating competence in serving clients and customers includes actively listening to customers to avoid misunderstandings and identifying needs; communicating in a positive manner especially when handling complaints or conflict; efficiently obtaining additional resources to satisfy client needs.
C12 Exercises Leadership - Communicates thoughts, feelings, and ideas to justify a position, encourages, persuades, convinces, or otherwise motivates an individual or groups, including responsibly challenging existing procedures, policies, or authority. Demonstrating competence in exercising leadership includes making positive use of the rules/values followed by others; justifying a position logically and appropriately; establishing credibility through competence and integrity; and taking minority viewpoints into consideration.
C13 Negotiates to Arrive at a Decision - Works toward an agreement that may involve exchanging specific resources or resolving divergent interests. Demonstrating competence in negotiating to arrive at a decision involves researching opposition and the history of the conflict; setting realistic and attainable goals; presenting facts and arguments; listening to and reflecting on what has been said; clarifying problems and resolving conflicts; adjusting quickly to new facts/ideas; proposing and examining possible options; and making reasonable compromises.
C14 Works with Cultural Diversity - Works well with men and women and with a variety of ethnic, social, or educational backgrounds. Demonstrating competence in working with cultural diversity involves understanding one's own culture and those of others and how they differ; respecting the rights of others while helping them make cultural adjustments where necessary; basing impressions on individual performance, not on stereotypes; and understanding concerns of members of other ethnic and gender groups.


C15 Understands Systems - Knows how social, organizational, and technological systems work and operates effectively within them. Demonstrating competence in understanding systems involves knowing how a system's structures relate to goals; responding to the demands of the system/organization; knowing the right people to ask for information and where to get resources; and functioning within the formal and informal codes of the social/organizational system.
C16 Monitors and Corrects Performance - Distinguishes trends, predicts impact of actions on system operations, diagnoses deviations in the function of a system/organization, and takes necessary action to correct performance. Demonstrating competence in monitoring and correcting performance includes identifying trends and gathering needed information about how the system is intended to function; detecting deviations from system's intended purpose; troubleshooting the system; and making changes to the system to rectify system functioning and to ensure quality of product.
C17 Improves and Designs Systems - Makes suggestions to modify existing systems to improve products or services and develops new or alterative systems. Demonstrating competence in improving or designing systems involves making suggestions for improving the functioning of the system/organization; recommending alterative system designs based on relevant feedback; and responsibly challenging the status quo to benefit the larger system.


C18 Selects Technology - Judges which set of procedures, tools, or machines, including computers and their programs, will produce the desired results. Demonstrating competence in selecting technology includes determining desired outcomes and applicable constraints; visualizing the necessary methods and applicable technology; evaluating specifications; and judging which machine or tool will produce the desired results.
C19 Applies Technology to Task - Understands the overall intent and the proper procedures for setting up and operating machines, including computers and their programming systems. Demonstrating competence in how to apply technology to task includes understanding how different parts of machines interact and how machines interact with broader production systems; on occasion installing machines including computers; setting up machines or systems of machines efficiently to get desired results; accurately interpreting machine output; and detecting errors from program output.
C20 Maintains and Troubleshoots Technology - Prevents, identifies, or solves problems in machines, computers, and other technologies. Demonstrating competence in maintaining and troubleshooting technology includes identifying, understanding, and performing routine preventative maintenance and service on technology; detecting more serious problems; generating workable solutions to correct deviations; and recognizing when to get additional help.

Foundation Skills

Basic Skills

Fl Reading - Locates, understands, and interprets written information in prose and documents-including manuals, graphs, and schedules-to perform tasks; learns from text by determining the main idea or essential message; identifies relevant details, facts, and specifications; infers or locates the meaning of unknown or technical vocabulary; and judges the accuracy, appropriateness, style, and plausibility of reports, proposals, or theories of other writers.
F2 Writing - Communicates thoughts, ideas, information, and messages in writing; records information completely and accurately; composes and creates documents such as letters, directions, manuals, reports, proposals, graphs, flow-charts; uses language, style, organization, and format appropriate to the subject matter, purpose, and audience; includes supporting documentation and attends to level of detail; and checks, edits, and revises for correct information, appropriate emphasis, form, grammar, spelling, and punctuation.
F3 Arithmetic - Performs basic computations; uses basic numerical concepts such as whole numbers and percentages in practical situations; makes reasonable estimates of arithmetic results without a calculator; and uses tables, graphs, diagrams, and charts to obtain or convey quantitative information.
F4 Mathematics - Approaches practical problems by choosing appropriately from a variety of mathematical techniques; uses quantitative data to construct logical explanations for real world situations; expresses mathematical ideas and concepts orally and in writing; and understands the role of chance in the occurrence and prediction of events. [This skill definition is not yet completely developed.
F5 Listening - Receives, attends to, interprets, and responds to verbal messages and other cues such as body language in ways that are appropriate to the purpose; for example, to comprehend, to learn, to critically evaluate, to appreciate, or to support the speaker.
F6 Speaking - Organizes ideas and communicates oral messages appropriate to listeners and situations; participates in conversation, discussion, and group presentations; selects an appropriate medium for conveying a message; uses verbal language and other cues such as body language appropriate in style, tone, and level of complexity to the audience and the occasion; speaks clearly and communicates a message; understands and responds to listener feedback; and asks questions when needed.
F7 Creative Thinking - Uses imagination freely, combines ideas or information in new ways, makes connections between seemingly unrelated ideas, and reshapes goals in ways that reveal new possibilities.
F8 Decision Making - Specifies goals and constraints, generates alternatives, considers risks, and evaluates and chooses best alternative.
F9 Problem Solving - Recognizes that a problem exists (i.e., there is a discrepancy between what is and what should or could be); identifies possible reasons for the discrepancy; devises and implements a plan of action to resolve it; evaluates and monitors progress; and revises plan as indicated by findings.
F10 Seeing Things in the Mind's Eye - Organizes and processes symbols, pictures, graphs, objects or other information; for example, sees a building from a blueprint, a system's operation from schematics, the flow of work activities from narrative descriptions, or the taste of food from reading a recipe.
Fll Knowing How To Learn - Recognizes and can use learning techniques to apply and adapt new knowledge and skills in both familiar and changing situations and is aware of teaming tools such as personal teaming styles (visual, aural, etc.), formal learning strategies (note taking or clustering items that share some characteristics), and informal teaming strategies (awareness of unidentified false assumptions that may lead to faulty conclusions). [This skill definition is not yet completely developed.
F12 Reasoning - Discovers a rule or principle underlying the relationship between two or more objects and applies it in solving a problem; uses logic to draw conclusions from available information; extracts rules or principles from a set of objects or written text; applies rules and principles to a new situation or determines which conclusions are correct when given a set of facts and a set of conclusions. [This skill definition is not yet completely developed.

Personal Qualities

F13 Responsibility - Exerts a high level of effort and perseverance toward goal attainment; works hard to become excellent at doing tasks by setting high standards, paying attention to details, working well and displaying a high level of concentration even when assigned an unpleasant task; and displays high standards of attendance, punctuality, enthusiasm, vitality, and optimism in approaching and completing tasks.
F14 Self-Esteem - Believes in own self-worth and maintains a positive view of self; demonstrates knowledge of own skills and abilities; is aware of impact on others; and knows own emotional capacity and needs and how to address them. [This skill definition is not yet completely developed.
F15 Social - Demonstrates understanding, friendliness, adaptability, empathy and politeness in new and on-going group settings; asserts self in familiar and unfamiliar social situations; relates well to others; responds appropriately as the situation requires; and takes an interest in what others say and do.
F16 Self-Management - Assesses own knowledge, skis, and abilities accurately; sets well-defined and realistic personal goals; monitors progress toward goal attainment and motivates self through goal achievement; exhibits self-control and responds to feedback unemotionally and non-defensively; and is a "self-starter."
F17 Integrity/Honesty - Can be trusted; recognizes when faced with making a decision or exhibiting behavior that may break with commonly-held personal or societal values; understands the impact of violating these beliefs and codes on an organization, self, and others; and chooses an ethical course of action. [This skill definition is not yet completely developed.
  1. --End of Excerpts---

[These extended excerpts are from the book "Skills and Tasks for Jobs - A SCANS report for America 2000" published by the U.S. Department of Labor. The book may be purchased from the U.S. Government Printing Office under ISBN 0-16-036177-X.]----------------------------------------------------------------

Bibliographic data below was posted to EdNet by Mr. Thomas J. Pitre, whose e-mail account appears to be with the California state university system. The data itself is from the University of Saskatchewan Library System:


Author: Department of Labor, Washington, DC. Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills.;

Title: Skills and Tasks for Jobs. A SCANS Report for America 2000.

Abstract: This report identifies generic competencies (skills necessary for success in the workplace) and foundations (skills and qualities underlying the competencies).

Chapter 1 explains use of this report to help educators make high school courses more relevant to the needs of a modern work force and to help employers ensure that their employees possess appropriate, up-to-date skills. Development of the material is described.

Chapter 2 contains definitions of the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) competencies and foundation skills, followed by displays of job tasks in descending levels of difficulty. A two-page display of each competency/foundation skill provides a definition of the skill and illustrative tasks, along with corresponding job titles. Tasks are arranged in rows, with a maximum of three distinct tasks per row. Rows are arranged in ascending order of difficulty.

Chapter 3 lists the task descriptions of 35 jobs clustered in the following areas: health and human services; office,financial services, government; accommodations and personal business; manufacturing, agribusiness, mining, construction; and trade, transportation, and communication. Chapter 3 also contains information about the importance of the competency and foundation skills required for these jobs. Two tables present the means and standard deviations of the ratings for all jobs for competencies and foundation skills determined through interviews with people holding these jobs. Information is then provided for each job, grouped by the five sectors of the economy. For each job, a brief general description is given. Next, the mean and standard deviations of the competencies and foundations are shown for that job. Following these data, illustrative tasks are provided that demonstrate the use of some skills. The appendix contains information on 15 additional jobs. (YLB)

Descriptors: Vocational Education; Task Analysis; Skill Analysis; Secondary Education; Postsecondary Education; Occupational Information; Labor Force Development; Job Skills; Job Analysis; Employment Qualifications; Education Work Relationship; Difficulty Level; Competency Based Education;

Collation: 545; 6

Note: Government Document: Federal

Note: Country of Origin: U.S.; District of Columbia

Note: Language: English

Note: 545p.; For related documents, see ED 332 054 and ED 346 348.

Note: EDRS Price - MF02/PC22 Plus Postage.--end---