Major Categories in the Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
Categories in the Cognitive Domain:
1. Knowledge: Knowledge is (here) defined as the remembering
(recalling) of appropriate, previously learned information.
defines; enumerates; identifies; labels; lists; matches; names; reads;
reproduces; restates; selects; states; views.
2. Comprehension: Grasping (understanding) the meaning of
classifies; cites; converts; describes; discusses; estimates; explains;
generalizes; gives examples; paraphrases; summarizes; understands.
3. Application: The use of previously learned information in new
and concrete situations to solve problems that have single or best answers.
acts; administers; articulates; assesses; charts; collects; computes;
constructs; contributes; controls; determines; develops; discovers; establishes; extends;
implements; includes; informs; instructs; operationalizes; participates; predicts;
prepares; preserves; produces; projects; provides; records; relates; reports; shows;
solves; takes; teaches; transfers; uses; utilizes.
4. Analysis: The breaking down of informational materials into
their component parts, examining (and trying to understand the organizational structure
of) such information to develop divergent conclusions by identifying motives or causes,
making inferences, and/or finding evidence to support generalizations.
breaks down; correlates; diagrams; differentiates; discriminates;
distinguishes; focuses; illustrates; infers; limits; outlines; points out; prioritizes;
recognizes; separates; subdivides.
5. Synthesis: Creatively or divergently applying prior knowledge
and skills to produce a new or original whole.
adapts; anticipates; categorizes; collaborates; combines; communicates;
compares; compiles; composes; contracts; contrasts; creates; designs; devises; expresses;
facilitates; formulates; generates; incorporates; individualizes; initiates; integrates;
intervenes; models; modifies; negotiates; plans; progresses; rearranges; reconstructs;
reinforces; reorganizes; revises; structures; substitutes; validates.
6. Evaluation: Judging the value of material based on personal
values/opinions, resulting in an end product, with a given purpose, without real right or
appraises; concludes; confronts; criticizes; critiques; decides;
defends; interprets; judges; justifies; reframes; translates.
Other Domains for Educational Objectives:
Affective Domain (emphasizing feeling and emotion)
Psychomotor Domain (concerned with motor skills)
[http://www.fwl.org/edtech/blooms.html] (DLRN Technology Resource Guide, Chapter 5)
Questions Based on Blooms
"One of the more frustrating aspects of this taxonomy is its
forgotten attribution to the rest of the team. Bloom was the first name listed in
alphabetical order of multiple editors, so many that they became the ubiquitous "and
others" of a taxonomy that was developed by a committee of people."
Bloom Benjamin S. and David R. Krathwohl, (1956). Taxonomy of Educational
Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals, by a committee of college and
Krathwohl, David R., Benjamin S. Bloom, and Bertram B. Masia, (1964 )
Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook
II: Affective Domain. New York: David McKay Co., Inc.
Francis P Hunkins (UW), Teaching
Thinking Through Effective Questioning (1989), and others.
to write learning outcomes", by Alan Jenkins (Oxford Brookes University) &
Dave Unwin (Birkbeck College London)
"Learning outcomes are statements of what is expected that a
student will be able to DO as a result of a learning activity. For this new version of the
Core Curriculum the activity will be following your materials on WWW or listening to a
lecture based on them, but it could also be a laboratory class, even an entire study